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Bullets to BallotsCollective De-Radicalisation of Armed Movements$
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Omar Ashour

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9781474467117

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: May 2022

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9781474467117.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM EDINBURGH SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.edinburgh.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Edinburgh University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ESO for personal use.date: 06 July 2022

Lessons from South Africa: A First-Hand Testimony*

Lessons from South Africa: A First-Hand Testimony*

(p.23) 2 Lessons from South Africa: A First-Hand Testimony*
Bullets to Ballots

Ronnie Kasrils

Edinburgh University Press

Former Minister for the Intelligence Services in South Africa, Ronnie Kasrils, writes about the challenges faced by the African National Congress (ANC) during the transition to peaceful political activism. He explains the ruptures he faced personally as one of the founders of the military wing of the ANC (Umkhonto we Sizwe – MK, or Spear of the Nation), and as a former deputy minister of defence in South Africa, following the end of apartheid and the transition to democracy. The chapter focuses on the establishment of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, its transformation and demobilisation in 1994, and the challenges of the amalgamation of the previous adversarial military forces into a new South African National Defence Force up to 1999. The chapter also outlies some of the reforms in both the military and the intelligence establishments.

Keywords:   South African transition, MK – armed wing of the ANC, ANC, Security of South Africa, De-Radicalisation in Africa, DDR

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