The history of Bayana and its region is investigated from historical sources, inscriptions, and the actual buildings, beginning with its pre-Islamic origins; the conquest of Bayana by the Ghurids in 1194; the extent of the region of Bayana; its flourishing condition in the 13th and 14th centuries and the account of Ibn Battūta’s visit. The shock of Tīmūr’s invasion of North India, with the formation of independent sultanates is analysed, in particular the rise of the Auhadīs (genealogy in Appendix II) who ruled Bayana autonomously; followed by the impact of Lodī dominance; Bābur and the rise of the Mughals. The Sūrī challenge to the empire and the social conditions are also considered, in particular the appearance of a Mahdī and the purge of his cult and its militia. The return of the Mughals, and their patronage of the area is illustrated by edifices such as the garden built for Jahangīr’s mother Maryam Zamanī. Extracts from the sources (often untranslated previously) are given in the original Arabic and Persian as well as in translation, as are major epigraphs (supported by Appendix I), to form a coherent picture of this previously neglected area of North Indian history.
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