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Human Rights and Reformist Islam$
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Mohsen Kadivar

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781474449304

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9781474449304.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM EDINBURGH SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.edinburgh.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Edinburgh University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ESO for personal use.date: 07 July 2022

The Rights of Non-Muslims in Contemporary Islam

The Rights of Non-Muslims in Contemporary Islam

Chapter:
(p.377) 13 The Rights of Non-Muslims in Contemporary Islam1
Source:
Human Rights and Reformist Islam
Author(s):

Mohsen Kadivar

Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:10.3366/edinburgh/9781474449304.003.0014

This chapter provides a framework for two types of rules for non-Muslims, time-bound rules and timeless rights. The concepts of “abode of Islam” and “abode of War” are examples of the former. The latter are founded on six principles which are discussed: First, the essential dignity of human beings; second, the plurality of religions and the differences of people in religion, which is a reality related to God’s will; third, a Muslim is not obligated to question others about their religion; forth, coexistence in peace and with respect: Muslims are obligated to be at peace with others and are not permitted to enter into hostile campaigns against those who have not acted against Muslims. Rather, they are obligated to be friends with these people and nations and to spread good and act in fairness. Fifth, all relations between Muslims and non-Muslims are based on agreements and contracts. The sixth principle is that of reciprocity (muqabala bi al-mithl) while observing justice. The chapter ends with the section on ‘The Rights of non-Muslims in Varying Circumstances’. There is no previously determined mould that applies to all times and places.

Keywords:   Non-Muslims, Rights minorities, abode of Islam, abode of War, abode of treaty, reciprocity, human dignity, plurality of religions, coexistence in peace, agreements and contracts

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