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Human Rights and Reformist Islam$
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Mohsen Kadivar

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781474449304

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9781474449304.001.0001

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The Rights of the Political Opposition in an Islamic Society

The Rights of the Political Opposition in an Islamic Society

(p.246) 9 The Rights of the Political Opposition in an Islamic Society1
Human Rights and Reformist Islam

Mohsen Kadivar

Edinburgh University Press

Using the Ashura movement and the way of Husain b. Ali as case studies, this chapter proves that political freedoms are an integral part of the presence of Islam in the public sphere. The massacre at Karbala was one of the biggest turning points in the history of Islam. This chapter discusses this tragedy from the perspective of human rights, focusing on the rights of political opposition in the shari‘a. Husain b. Ali is the best example of political opposition against unjust rulers in the history of Islam. There are three concepts that should not be confused: political opposition, baghi and muharib. Muharib refers to opposition in the form of terrorists and criminals, while baghi refers to regime changers or freedom fighters. These are the sections of this chapter: Husain b. Ali as the Political Opponent of the Umayyads, The Right to Not Have Allegiance to a State, Accepting the Invitation of the Dissidents to Change the Oppressive Ruler, Baghi and Overthrow, The Crime of Muharabah and Armed Insecurity, The Rights of the Political Opponent, and Imam Husain and the Duty of Forbidding the Wrong.

Keywords:   Ashura, Husain b. Ali, political freedoms, political opposition, baghi (regime changers), muharib and Muharabah (terrorism), freedom fighters, Oppressive/unjust Ruler, Duty of Forbidding the Wrong

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