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Modelling World EnglishesA Joint Approach to Postcolonial and Non-Postcolonial Varieties$
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Sarah Buschfeld and Alexander Kautzsch

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781474445863

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9781474445863.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM EDINBURGH SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.edinburgh.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Edinburgh University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ESO for personal use.date: 05 August 2021

Standard English in Trinidad: Multinormativity, Translocality, and Implications for the Dynamic Model and the EIF Model

Standard English in Trinidad: Multinormativity, Translocality, and Implications for the Dynamic Model and the EIF Model

Chapter:
(p.274) Chapter 13 Standard English in Trinidad: Multinormativity, Translocality, and Implications for the Dynamic Model and the EIF Model1
Source:
Modelling World Englishes
Author(s):

Philipp Meer

Dagmar Deuber

Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:10.3366/edinburgh/9781474445863.003.0013

This article applies the Dynamic Model and the Extra- and Intra-territorial Forces (EIF) Model to Standard English in Trinidad based on the findings of a large-scale attitude study. The results suggest that, in the educational domain in Trinidad, a multidimensional norm orientation with coexisting standards that incorporates exo- and endonormative tendencies is prevalent. The Dynamic Model is not fully able to explain the findings, but the EIF Model can account for this norm complexity. However, the assumption underlying both models that postcolonial Englishes prototypically achieve (full) endonormativity unless their development is stalled at an earlier stage or even reversed is unlikely to fully capture the norm developmental processes in Trinidad and other complex postcolonial speech communities. We therefore propose an extension of the EIF Model that, depending on the constellation, directionality, and continuity of different sets of forces, allows for multinormative stabilization as an alternative development. We also introduce translocality as an alternative theoretical framework for the conceptualization of forces and argue for a more comprehensive understanding of intra-varietal heterogeneity. An extended and modified version of the EIF Model that takes these further complexities into account can help explain the norm developments in highly complex postcolonial speech communities.

Keywords:   Trinidadian English, language attitudes, education, Dynamic Model, Extra- and Intra-territorial Forces Model, endonormative stabilization, multinormative stabilization, translocality

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