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Language Revitalisation in Gaelic ScotlandLinguistic Practice and Ideology$

Stuart Dunmore

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781474443111

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9781474443111.001.0001

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(p.179) Index

(p.179) Index

Source:
Language Revitalisation in Gaelic Scotland
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
affect, 30
negative, 83, 87–9, 110, 115, 120, 146
Aithris na Maidne, 55; see also Radio nan Gàidheal
Alba, 72, 127, 134, 139
Kingdom of, 5; see also BBC Alba
An Comunn Gaidhealach, 44–5
An Là, 55; see also BBC Alba
ancestry, 19–20, 24; see also ethnicity; heritage
Anderson, Benedict, 24
Aotearoa/New Zealand, 40
applied linguistics, 14, 41, 153
Argyll, 5, 47, 54, 82, 91
Australia, 40
Baker, Colin, 29, 31, 36, 59
Basque language, 6, 37, 39
BBC Alba, 55, 93, 139
bilingualism, 7, 18, 20, 29, 32, 40–1, 46, 68, 131, 145
Bòrd na Gàidhlig, 2, 8, 10, 49
Bourdieu, Pierre, 13, 23, 27
Breton language, 38
Britain, 1, 2, 5, 6; see also identity: British
Brythonic, 5
Bucholtz, Mary, 21, 23
burghs, 1, 5
Cameron, Deborah, 60, 62–3
Canada, 30–1, 33–4, 39–40, 46
Catalan language, 34, 38–9
Cavanaugh, Jillian, 26
Celtic, 35
choice, 13, 32, 49, 79–80, 100
GME, 49–50, 98, 144
ideology of, 109, 118–20, 148
Church of Scotland, 44
code-switching, 57, 61–3, 71, 73–5, 134, 142–3
Comhairle nan Eilean, 45
Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, 54, 91
communication, 4, 6, 12, 14, 34, 45, 59, 87, 103, 117, 144
electronic, 55–6, 14, 102–4, 106–7, 144
wider, 6, 22, 25; see also discourse; interaction
community, 4, 9, 10–14, 16, 20–8, 30–1, 34, 39–41, 45, 48–52, 60, 62, 75, 92–3, 107, 143, 148
Basque Autonomous, 39
imagined, 24
Irish-speaking, 36–7
competence
communicative, 28, 30, 60
linguistic, 4, 13, 15, 22, 29, 31, 50, 80–1, 95
pragmatic, 30
Comunn na Gàidhlig, 7, 46, 48
Costa, James, 4
Council of Europe, 49
Crystal, David, 14 (p.180)
culture, 4, 6, 13, 14, 17–28, 31–2, 41, 58–61, 123, 148
Gaelic, 2, 3, 5–9, 49, 80, 82–7, 89, 137–8, 140, 142, 146, 151
Indigenous, 39–40
Scottish, 7–9, 131–5, 137–8
Xish/Xian, 10–13, 22
diglossia, 11–12
Diwan, 38
domain, 10, 12–15, 30, 33–4, 51–2, 104, 119, 148
higher-order, 12, 34, 39, 71, 96, 142–4
home, 12, 28, 51, 75, 82, 107
Dorian, Nancy, 9–10, 14, 23, 34, 52, 56, 154
Dörnyei, Zoltán, 31–2
Dunbar, Rob, 8, 10, 44, 47
Edinburgh, 10, 32, 48, 90–1, 132
education, 1, 3, 7, 10–12, 15, 18, 20, 27–9, 35, 43–5, 48, 46, 60, 90, 141–2, 146, 153–4
Basque-medium, 39
bilingual, 1, 3, 17, 29, 34, 40–1, 46, 60, 154
French immersion, 29–31
higher, 56, 66
immersion revitalisation, 15–17, 29, 33–5, 39, 41, 49, 153
Irish-medium, 36–8
Māori-medium, 40–1
Welsh-medium, 30, 33, 35–6, 143
Education (Scotland) Act 1872, 2, 7, 44
Education (Scotland) Act 1918, 7, 44–5
Edwards, John, 10–15, 18–22, 24–5, 30–2, 143, 154
employment, 11
Gaelic, 66, 71, 75, 90, 152
Welsh, 33, 143
English language, 2, 28–9, 31, 36–7, 41, 55–7, 61–3, 69–80, 87–90, 92–106, 110, 112, 114, 124–5, 128, 131–6, 142–8
language shift to, 2, 5–8, 20, 28, 44–5, 49, 51; see also Scots language
Enlightenment, 6; see also improvement; modernity
essentialism, 22–3
ethnicity, 19–21, 25; see also identity: ethnic
ethnography, 4, 9, 57–60, 152–3; see also speaking: ethnography of
Ethnologue, 4
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, 49
Facebook, 55; see also communication: electronic
family–neighbourhood–community nexus, 11–12, 15, 77, 144; see also intergenerational transmission
feminism, 23
Fishman, Joshua, 3–4, 9–15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 34–5, 52, 142–4, 153
fluency, 32–3, 35–6, 40, 45, 47, 50, 52, 68, 70, 77, 81, 93–5, 115–18, 145
Free Church of Scotland, 44
Gael see Gàidheal
Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, 7–8, 139
Gaelic renaissance, 7, 9
Gaelscoileanna, 36–8; see also education: Irish-medium
Gaeltacht, 36–7
Gàidheal, 4–5, 52, 82, 115, 121, 123–5, 135–7, 150; see also identity: Gaelic
Gàidhealtachd, 5, 9; see also Highlands and Islands
Gal, Susan, 26–7
García, Ofelia, 18, 21, 35
Gardner, Robert, 29, 31
Gellner, Ernest, 24
Gemeinschaft, 9, 12, 52; see also community
Gesellschaft, 9, 12, 52, 131; see also society
Glasgow, 2, 9–10, 32, 46–8, 50, 52–4, 90–1, 114
guilt ideology of, 108–11, 118, 140, 148, 151, 153
habitus, 27
Hall, Kira, 21, 23
Haugen, Einar, 14, 18
Hawai’ian language, 39
Heller, Monica, 4, 13, 15, 18, 24–5
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education, 2, 48 (p.181)
heritage, 6, 24, 34–5
Gaelic, 51, 80, 123–4, 127, 132, 137
Scottish, 8–9, 15; see also ethnicity; tradition
Highland Clearances, 2, 7; see also Enlightenment; improvement; inequality
Highland Council, 47, 54, 91
Highlands and Islands, 2, 44, 47, 54, 57–8, 81, 90, 121, 126
Gaelic within, 5–9, 26, 44, 81–2, 103, 121, 128–37, 146, 149; see also Gàidhealtachd
Hobsbawm, Eric, 24
Hroch, Miroslav, 24
Hymes, Dell, 28, 30, 59–62, 64, 87
Iaith Fyw, 35
iconisation, 23, 27, 52, 135
identity, 3, 6, 8, 10, 17–28, 31, 41, 58, 61
British, 136–8, 150
cultural, 14, 17, 19, 21, 34, 39, 56
ethnic, 10, 18–20, 22–3, 25, 27, 52
heritage, 51, 123, 150
Irish, 37
national, 24–5, 130–4, 136, 150, 153
personal, 117, 121–3, 138, 149
regional, 52, 126–30, 135, 138, 149
Scottish, 8–9, 27, 48, 52, 61, 124–5, 129, 131–8, 149–50
social, 20–1, 61, 108
Xian, 10, 22
idiom, 25, 50
ikastolak, 39; see also education: Basque-medium
improvement, 5–6
indexicality, 9, 27, 128, 135
Indigenous languages, 33, 35, 39–40
inequality, 13
Inglis, 1, 5; see also English language; Scots language
input, 30–3
Gaelic language, 48, 89, 109
interaction, 17, 20–1, 27–8, 30, 36, 43, 47, 53, 56–65, 70, 72, 74–5, 79, 85, 100, 104, 105, 142, 144; see also communication; discourse
interaction hypothesis, 30
intergenerational transmission, 3, 11–15, 40, 53, 59, 67, 75, 84, 97–102, 109, 111–12, 139, 144–6, 152; see also family; language socialisation
Inuktitut language, 28, 40
Inverness, 2, 45, 46, 54, 91
Inverness Society for Gaelic Schools, 44
Inverness-shire Gaelic Education Scheme, 45
Irvine, Judith, 27
Jaffe, Alexandra, 13, 23, 25, 27
Johnstone, Richard, 30–1, 33, 49, 51
judgement, 13
ideology of, 113–15, 139, 148–9
King, Kendall, 26, 35
Krauss, Michael, 4
Kroskrity, Paul, 25–6
Ladefoged, Peter, 14
Lambert, Wallace, 29, 31
Language, 14
language acquisition, 11, 16, 18, 28–32, 36, 41
English, 7, 41
Gaelic, 2, 50, 64, 79, 83–4
Welsh, 36
language alternation see code-switching
language attitudes, 2–3, 8, 20, 26, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 51
parental, 48; see also language ideologies
language attrition, 13, 16, 28–9, 32–4, 37, 41, 110
Gaelic, 110, 115–16, 118
Irish, 33
language decline, 1, 10, 13, 22, 41
language ideologies, 2, 6, 8, 10–13, 16–18, 22–9, 34–5, 37, 41, 58, 153
Irish, 37
language loss; 1, 4, 10, 32, 109, 115; see also language attrition; language decline; language shift
language maintenance, 3, 10–13, 15, 21–2, 25, 29, 32–5, 40, 59
Gaelic, 44, 48, 51, 68, 101, 107, 112, 141–7, 151–2, 154
Indigenous, 39–40; see also reversing language shift
language planning see language policy (p.182)
language policy, 1, 11, 12, 29, 15, 103, 146, 154
Gaelic, 2, 15, 44, 46–9, 53, 65, 112, 150–4
Irish, 37
Scottish, 2, 5–6, 44, 146, 153–4
Welsh, 35
language revitalisation, 1–4, 7, 10, 12–16, 23, 29, 34–5, 41
Basque, 39
Catalan, 34
Gaelic, 7, 9, 44, 47–9, 51–6, 65, 138, 141–4, 151–4
Indigenous, 1–2, 39
Irish, 37–8
language revival see language revitalisation
language shift, 4, 10–15, 20–2, 26, 35, 140–8, 154
Gaelic–English, 5–7, 28, 46; see also language decline
language socialisation, 16–18, 27–9, 41
Welsh, 36; see also community; domain: home
language use, 4, 8, 13–16, 20–5, 27, 33–5, 41–3, 56, 60–2
Breton, 38
Catalan, 38
Gaelic, 1–4, 16, 28, 48, 50–3, 57–9, 65–76, 85, 89, 93–106, 108–9, 113–15, 120, 135, 140–53
Irish, 33
Māori, 41
Navajo, 39
Welsh, 36–8; see also linguistic practice
learners, 9, 28, 30–1, 35
Gaelic, 50, 81, 114–15, 148
Irish, 37; see also language acquisition
linguistic anthropology, 17–19, 25–6, 41, 53, 59–60; see also sociolinguistics
linguistic practice, 3, 10, 13–15, 18, 20, 21–8, 34, 61
linguistic snobbery
perceptions of, 108–9, 113, 115, 139, 148–9, 153
literacy, 11, 24, 84, 95
Lowlands, 1–2, 5, 7, 9, 46, 57–8, 61, 69, 76, 79–81, 90, 111, 119, 125–8
MacCaluim, Alasdair, 49
Macdonald, Sharon, 9
McEwan-Fujita, Emily, 28
MacKinnon, Kenneth, 2, 47, 49
McLeod, Wilson, 7, 8, 35, 51, 81
Makihara, Miki, 19–21, 25–6, 147
Māori language, 40–1
May, Stephen, 19, 22, 24, 40–1
Mill, John Stuart, 6, 25
Ministerial Advisory Group on Gaelic (MAGOG), 7
modernity, 4, 12, 15, 20, 23–4, 115, 133, 144
motivation, 8, 15, 33, 72, 109–10, 148
instrumental, 31
integrative, 31–2
parental, 48–9, 51
pupil, 35, 37
music, 80, 85–6, 104–7, 132, 145
multiculturalism, 23, 28, 133
multilingualism, 12, 18, 20, 27–8,; see also bilingualism
National Gaelic Language Plan, 8, 15, 49
nationalism, 23–5, 27
English, 24
linguistic, 24
Scottish, 24; see also Romanticism
native speakers, 31, 33, 40, 65, 75, 83, 88, 110, 113, 115, 148; see also tradition
Navajo language, 39
new speakers, 10, 15, 38, 65, 79–84, 89, 140, 146, 153–4; see also learners
Nic Craith, Máiréad, 4
Normans, 1, 5
Northumbrian, 1, 5; see also Inglis
Nova Scotia, 49
Occitan language, 38
Ochs, Elinor, 19, 21, 62
O’Hanlon, Fiona, 44, 46, 50–1
Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg, 14–15, 36–8, 152
Oliver, James, 9, 52, 150
output, 30, 33
Paterson, Lindsay, 9, 44
Pictish language, 5
Pierce, Charles, 27 (p.183)
plurilingualism, 19; see also bilingualism; multilingualism
policymakers see language policy
positionality, 20–1, 60
power, 13, 18, 25
practice see linguistic practice
Quebec, 28, 40; see also Canada; St Lambert experiment
Radio nan Gàidheal, 55
repertoire
bilingual, 36, 61; see also bilingualism
reversing language shift (RLS), 3, 10, 13, 22, 34, 75, 141; see also language revitalisation
revitalisation see language revitalisation
Romaine, Suzanne, 4, 11–14, 17, 20, 145, 148
Romanticism, 6, 24, 27, 131–2
Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, 79, 114, 124
St Lambert experiment, 29; see also education: French immersion
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, 19
school see education
Scots language, 1–2, 5, 61–2, 121, 127, 129–32, 149; see also English language; Inglis
Silverstein, Michael, 25
society, 9, 11, 14, 17, 19–20, 25, 52
Gaelic, 1, 5–6, 154
Scottish, 1–2, 8, 56, 131, 133
Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK), 6–7
sociolinguistics, 1, 3, 11–13, 15, 17–18, 20, 30, 38, 58–9, 60, 62, 107, 146
sociology of language, 17, 24, 25, 58–9, 153
speaking, 27, 31, 32, 68, 71–2, 74–5, 93, 95, 99–100, 115–16, 146, 148, 153
ethnography of, 3, 43, 59–65; see also communication; discourse
standard language, 12, 18, 25, 62
Statutes of Iona, 5
Strubell, Miquel, 15
television, 55, 93, 104–5, 145; see also BBC Alba
tradition, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 21, 25, 34, 44
Gaelic, 9, 50, 85–6, 115, 123, 134–5, 143; see also heritage
transcription, 16, 43, 58, 60, 62–4
Twitter, 55; see also communication: electronic
UK census, 2–4, 9–10, 36, 46, 90
United Kingdom see Britain; identity: British
United Nations, 4
United States of America, 39
Ushioda, Ema, 32
von Herder, Johann Gottfried, 6, 24; see also Romanticism
von Humboldt, Wilhelm, 6, 24; see also Romanticism
Welsh Language Act 1993, 7
Western Isles, 15, 28, 43, 45–6, 48–52, 54, 57, 76–80, 87, 88, 110, 146
Williams, Colin, 19, 20, 22
Williams, Glyn, 13
Withers, Charles, 5–6
Woolard, Kathryn, 26, 33–4, 38–9
Woolf, Alexander, 5
Xish language, 10–12, 22; see also Fishman: Joshua; identity: Xian