The Conclusion of the book focuses on the lessons that can be learned from the bridging of theory and practice. More specifically, the Conclusion considers how transnational and multilateral responses compare, and explains that state and non-state actors face very similar problems, including the ongoing struggle to lower greenhouse gas emissions at the rate required, the entrenched favouring of mitigation over adaptation, the pervasive exclusion of less developed countries from decision making processes, and the incessant failure to change the behaviour of responsible actors. These shared problems imply that integrating transnational climate change actors in multilateral processes, which the Post-Paris Agreement regime is moving towards, may not be a simple or straightforward improvement of the climate change response. The Conclusion therefore reflects on whether the direction the Post-Paris regime is heading in might be a hindrance to a just response to the climate change problem, rather than a help. The Conclusion ultimately recommends that transnational actors should be given as much space as possible to pursue their ambitions, with limited guidance from the UNFCCC.
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