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IslamisationComparative Perspectives from History$

A. C. S. Peacock

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9781474417129

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9781474417129.001.0001

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(p.515) Index

(p.515) Index

Source:
Islamisation
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press

Note: f indicates figure, n indicates endnote, t indicates table

Abadir, Shaykh, 251
Abaqa, Ilkhan, 356, 358, 362
Abbasids, 5, 6, 107, 194, 496
ʿAbd al-Khaliq, 507
ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAttash, 321
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Habib:
Taʾrikh, 203
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwan, Caliph, 108, 227
ʿAbd al-Rahman I, amir of Cordoba, 200
ʿAbd al-Rahman II, amir of Cordoba, 200
ʿAbd al-Rahman III, amir (later caliph) of Cordoba, 199, 201, 204
ʿAbd al-Razzaq al-San‘ani, 120
Musannaf, 128, 129
ʿAbdallah b. ʿAmir, 110, 111
ʿAbdallah b. Selam, 302
al-ʿAbdi, Makhraba (Mudrik b. Khut), 86
Abdulfattah, Kamal, 159, 171
Abesh Khatun, 362
Abrun the Turk, 105–7, 108
Abu Hanifa, imam, 306
Abu Nuʿaym:
Hilyat al-Awliya’, 127
Abu Qurra, Caliph, 194
Abu Saʿid, Ilkhan, 359, 361
Abu Talep, 482
Abu Yazid, 256
Abyssinia see Ethiopia
acculturation, 26, 118–30
religious code-switching, 121–30
Acién Almansa, Manuel, 204
ʿAdal sultanate, 230
Adam, Pate, 423
Adilangu II, Pangeran, 425
Afaq Khoja, 506
ʿAfif, Shams-i Siraj, 384–5
al-Aflaki al-Arifi, Shams al-Din Ahmed, 141, 145
Afonso, Dom, of Kongo, 24, 29, 33
Africa
ethnography, 9
Pentecostalism, 93
religions, 8
agriculture, 76, 260
Agung, Sultan of Mataram, 27
Ahmad b. Hanbal, 126–7
Ahmad b. Ibrahim, 231, 232, 237
Aisha Khatun, 363
Akbar, Emperor, 38, 385
Aksum, 223, 228, 247
ʿAlaʾ al-Din Bahman Shah see Hasan Gangu (Zafar Khan)
ʿAlaʾ al-Din Kayqubad I, Sultan, 140, 141
al-ʿAlaʾ b. al-Hadhrami, 86
Alam, Muzaffar, 395
Albania/Albanians, 286, 287
Alexandria Patriarchate, 228
Algeria:
Tahart, 194, 195, 254
Ali, Abdul Mukti, 448, 456
ʿAli b. Abi Talib, 401, 475, 476, 484
ʿAli b. Yahya b. al-Munajjim, 56
Ali, Mustafa, 280, 282
Almoravids, 257, 259
Altun Aba, Shams al-Din, amir, 139–40, 142, 144, 147
Amde Siyon, Emperor of Ethiopia, 229, 230
Amin, Samir, 204
Amitai, Reuven, 31, 336, 338, 355
Ampel, Sunan, 426
Ananda (grandson of Khubilai Khan), 356, 360 (p.516)
Anas b. Malik, 125
Anatolia, 134–48
Aksaray, 142
Ankara, 140–1
Cappadocia, 142
conversion process, 298, 299
Islamic institutions, 137–42;
madrasas, 138–41, 142, 143
Kayseri, 140, 142
Konya, 141–4, 145, 147
languages, 144
population, 142, 148
Sagalassos, 137
Sivas, 140, 141
Tanzimat reforms, 72
Turkicisation, 3–4, 134, 136–7 see also Rum
al-Andalus, 199–207
Arabisation, 200, 201, 202
archaeology, 204–5
architecture, 205
Berber rebellion, 194
blasphemy, 201
burial practices, 205
Christians, 199, 201, 202–3
converts, 5
‘Copper City’ legend, 203
Cordoba, 200–1
court culture, 200–1, 202
dhimmīs, 200
intellectual life, 203
Jews, 202
jurisprudence, 200, 201
legacy, 206–7
literary sources, 205–6
Madinat al-Zahra, 201
Muslim conquest, 200
rebellions, 201, 204
tribalism, 203–4
as a tributary society, 204
anthroplogy, 45n75
Anushirvan, 472, 474, 475, 484
apostasy, 88, 89, 90, 120–1, 123–4, 142
Arab, Molla, 300
Arabia
conversion, 83–93;
as an event, 84–9;
models of, 93;
as a process, 83, 89–92;
sources, 83–4
Hijaz, 92
Hudaybiyya, 111
Mecca, 33, 483
Medina, 91
non-Muslims, 85
polytheism, 85, 87
population, 84
Arabian Sea, 231
Arabic
Anatolia, 141
and Arabisation, 4
and Judaism, 5
Quran in, 90
and religious identity, 118–19
Southern Levant, 157
Arabisation, 3, 4, 7
al-Andalus, 201, 202
Chinese mosques, 509
Southern Levant, 156–8
Arabs
and Berbers, 190, 192
expansion into North Africa and Spain, 191f
Nubia, 224
Aram Shah, 398
Aramaic, 157, 158
archaeology, 7
Africa, 9
Anatolia, 137–8
al-Andalus, 204–5
Eritrea, 247
Ethiopia, 223, 247, 249–53, 260
nomads, 254, 256–7
Red Sea Coast, 247–9
Somalia, 254
Somaliland, 254
sub-Saharan Africa, 244–62
architecture, 7
al-Andalus, 205
Gaza, 172
Mali, 256
Persianate, 396
Sasanian, 402
Ardeshir I, King, 104
Arghun Khan, 359
Arïq Böke, 355, 362
Armenian language, 137, 141
Arnold, T. W.:
The Preaching of Islam, 5, 322, 379
Arps, Ben, 456, 459
Arya Cerbon, Pangeran, 427
Arya Damar, 426
Asad, Talal, 478
Ascalon, 169f, 172
Asfaw, Aklilu, 225
al-Ashʿari family, 107
al-Ashraf Khalil b. Qalawun, Sultan, 165
Aspebetos (Peter), 88
Assman, Jan, 26
Astarabadi, ʿAziz b. Ardashir, 144
Athanasius of Alexandria, 83
Awdaghust, 254 (p.517)
Axial Age, 25, 35
al-Aydarus, Abu Bakr b. ʿAbdallah, Shaykh, 261
Ayyubids, 159, 162
Azfar Moin, Ahmed, 33, 37–8
al-Azmeh, Aziz, 83, 87, 88
Baba Farid, 72, 384, 385, 386
Baccot, Julliet, 482
Badakhshan
Buddhism, 325
Hudud al-’Alam, 325
Ismailism, 201, 317–28
Shiites, 317
Badio, S., 428
Baeda Maryam I, Emperor of Ethiopia, 231
Bahaʾ al-Din, 403
Bahman b. Isfandiyar, 402, 403
Baidu, 355, 363
Bakchos the Younger, 123–5, 128
Bakharzi, Sayf al-Din, 356–7
Bakharzi, Yahya Abu al-Mafakhir al-Din, 357
al-Bakri, Abu ʿUbayd ʿAbdallah, 27, 256
al-Baladhuri, Ahmad b. Yahya, 224
Ansab al-Ashraf, 103, 104
Kitab Futuh al-Buldan, 192
Balivet, Michel, 136
Balkans, 6, 278, 284
Banakati, 357
Banu Wafa’ (later Husayni) family, 161
Bar Hebraeus, 358, 363
Barbier, Père, 389
Barceló, Miquel, 203–4
Barros, João de:
Decades da Asia, 432–3
Bartol’d, Vasilii Vladimirovich, 336, 337
Batinism, 202
Battle of Artlakh (751), 496
Battle of ‘Ayn Jalut (1260), 159, 164
Battle of Çaldıran (1514), 284
Battle of Manzikert (1071), 134
Battle of Milvian Bridge (312), 28
Battle of Mohács (1526), 278
Battle of Siffin (657), 194
Bauer, Thomas, 93
Baybars, Sultan, 159, 161, 164, 178nn48, 49
Bedouins, 164, 165, 169f, 178nn48, 49
Beira, Fr J. de, 44n68
Bel, Alfred:
La Religion musulmane en Berbérie, 190
Belgian Congo:
Suku culture, 47n98
Bengal, 9, 36, 247, 380, 382–4, 388–9
Berbers, 185–95, 204
acceptance of Islam, 195, 261
and Arabs, 190, 192
Baranis, 192
Butr, 192
enslavement, 192, 193
Essuk/Tadmekka, 256
identity, 189–90
Kharijite, 195
Mafakhir al-Barbar, 195
revolts, 193, 194
and Sufism, 190
Berg, C., 429
Berke Khan, 42n35, 354–5, 356–7
Bethlehem, 228
Bhuvanekabahu VII of Kotte, 45n74
Bible
Hebrew, 60
New Testament, 455;
Gospels, 59, 61–2, 64, 66
Old Testament, 29;
Ethiopia in, 223–4;
Isaiah, 61;
Psalms, 61
and the Quran, 227
Southern Levant, 157, 158
Bilad al-Sham, 163f, 167
Bilal b. Rabah, 247
biographical dictionaries, 6, 136, 144
al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan, 388
Bitlisi, Idris, 280
Bogomils, 279
Boivin, Michel, 485n7
Bosnia, 277–87
Bogomils, 279
Christians, 284, 285
devşirme, 280–1, 283–4, 285, 286
economy, 278
Franciscans, 279
Poturnaks, 282–5, 286, 287
Sarajevo, 278, 286–7
Sufibrotherhoods, 279
taxation, 278
urbanisation, 278–9
Braginsky, Vladimir, 444, 484
Brahmans, 36
India, 380, 382
Vietnam, 474–5, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480
Braude, Benjamin, 281
Brawijaya, Prabu, 426, 427, 431
Brett, Michael, 160
Brunschvig, Robert, 67
Buddhism
Badakhshan, 325
China, 356
and conversion, 34
expansion of, 32
Mahayana, 35–6
Mongols, 358, 359, 361, 362
Qarakhitai, 365n2
Sindh, 8
Theravada, 36
Bulgaria, 136, 287 (p.518)
Bulghars, 156
Bulliet, Richard, 6, 7, 24, 84, 202, 297, 386
Bulughan Khatun, 363
Bungsu, Radja, 42n38
Burak, Guy, 304–5
Burhan al-Din Ahmad, 144
Burke, Peter, 121–2
Burton, Richard, 251
Byzantines, 134, 192
Caballero, Luis, 205
Cakobau of Fiji, 29
Cambodia
Akhar Thrah texts, 479, 480, 481–2
Chumnik, 483
Jawisation, 474, 480
Kan Imam San group, 480, 481, 484
Shiism, 484
Canfield, Robert, 323
caravanserais, 140, 147
Carlson, Thomas, 7
Carthage, 192
Çelebi, Fıraki Abdurrahman (attrib.):
Kırk Suʾal, 302
Cemali, Zenbilli ʿAli, 300
cemeteries
al-Andalus, 205
Gao, 259, 260
Central Asia
conversion process, 23, 35, 36, 336–48
Mongol era, 340
Qarachuq, 342, 343, 344
Syr Darya valley, 339
Cevahirü’l-İslam, 297
Chabui (wife of Khubilai Khan), 362
Champa, 435, 477, 479
Chandar Bhan Brahman, 396
Chang, Hajji Yusuf, 504
children, 359–60
education, 123, 126, 298, 305, 361
Mongol, 357–8
China, 495–510
Buddhism, 356
Chang’an (Xi’an), 496
Confucianism, 9, 37, 501, 502
conversion process, 356
Cultural Revolution (1966–76), 509
Gedimu communities, 501, 506, 508
Great Wall, 499
Han Kitab, 9, 501, 502, 507, 508
Huang Chao rebellion (878), 497
Hui people, 503, 505, 508, 509
Huiru (Muslim Confucians), 501, 502
Islamic education, 500–1;
madrasas, 506, 509
Manchus, 502
Ming dynasty, 498–500
Mongols, 498
mosques, 498, 506, 509, 511n20
Qing dynasty, 502, 505–6
Quanzhou, 498
rebellions, 434, 505–7
religious freedom, 495
Sinicisation, 497, 498–500
Song dynasty, 497
Sufism, 506, 508
Sui dynasty, 504
Tang Empire, 495–7
trade, 421, 496, 498
Xi’an see Chang’an
Xilai Zongpu (Record of the Arrival from the West), 503
Xinjiang annexation, 505, 506
Yuan dynasty, 498
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 508–9
Chinggis Khan, 359
Chinggisids, 359, 361–2, 364
Christendom, 38
Christianity
Arab conversion to, 88, 93
Constantine and, 28
Ethiopia, 237
Mongols, 358–9
Nubia, 224–5
Pentecostalism, 93
Puritans, 74
religious code-switching, 122–5
Scandinavians’ conversion to, 84, 87, 322–3
Christians
Anatolia, 136, 138, 143
al-Andalus, 199, 200, 201, 202–3
Balkans, 6, 284, 285
belief in Christ, 59
Bengal, 389
conversion to Islam, 4–7, 67, 139, 144–5, 229, 280, 284, 287;
Ethiopia, 223, 224, 225, 231, 232
and futuwwa, 145–6
Gaza, 167, 171
and interreligious marriage, 128–9
Iran, 362
and Joseph story, 453–5
language of faith, 118–19
Mongol era, 360
Oman, 89–90
Ottoman Empire, 298
Quranic knowledge, 126
Southern Levant, 157, 158, 160, 161–2 (p.519)
Syria, 7
and waqfs, 140 see also Nestorians; Puritans
churches
al-Andalus, 205
Cappadocia, 142
Constantinople, 362
Ethiopia, 232
Gaza, 167
Jerusalem, 228
made into mosques, 139
Rome, 28
and waqfs, 146
Clovis, king of the Franks, 29
Cohen, Amnon, 159
coins
Almoravid, 259
Anatolia, 137
Chinese, 440n72
Constantinople, 28
Essuk/Tadmekka, 256
Harlaa, 253
pagan symbolism, 28
Conde, Fr João de Vila do, 45n74
confessionalisation, 8
Constantine, Emperor, 28, 29
Constantinople, 134, 362
‘Constitution of Medina’, 91
convents, 235
conversion
Christian attitude to, 56–7, 379
and incorporation, 32
language of, 119–20
narratives of, 8, 298
and rulers, 21, 22–5, 33, 34
in scholarship, 4–9
usage of term, 3, 4, 379 see also acculturation
conversion chronicles, 26–30
Central Asian, 31
Fijian, 29
Malay, 23, 26, 27, 38
miraculous acts of, 27, 31
Qïrghïz, 31
Russian, 29
West African, 27, 33
Coptic language, 3
Crane, Howard, 140
Croatia see Klis
Crone, Patricia, 204, 317
Crusaders, 7
Cu Cu (Jinbun), 425, 427, 430, 431, 432, 433, 435, 436
Cuçuf, Pate, 423, 434
cults:
pre-Islamic, 24, 32, 33–4, 87–8
Cyril of Scythopolis, 88
Dabashi, Hamid:
The World of Persian Literary Humanism, 395
Dahlak Islands, 227, 248
Muslim tombstone, 247–8, 249f
Dalai Lama, 45n77
Darrab, Amirah, 321
Datu Kahfi, Syeh, 427
Daʾud, Sultan, 139
David, King, 60
al-Dawla, Rashid, 361
Day, Anthony, 446
Despina Khatun, 362, 363
DeWeese, Devin, 27, 28, 31, 32, 357
Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde, 4, 8
Dharma, Po, 482
dhimmīs, 6, 7, 141–2, 158, 192, 200
divorce, 128, 129, 130
Djajadiningrat, H., 429
DNA analysis, 137
Doquz Khatun, 362
Dulafi, ʿUmar, 107
Dulafids, 107
Dunamma, King, 34
Dunya Khatun, 363
Durand, E. M., 472, 476
Dzungar Empire, 506
Eaton, Richard, 7, 24, 34, 36, 37, 72, 76, 109, 247, 323, 393, 396
Efendi, Birgivi Mehmed:
Vasiyetname (Risale-i Birgivi), 299, 301
Efendi, Ebussud, 300, 301
Efendi, Sarı Gürz Hamza, 300
Egypt
Arab conquest, 83
conversion process, 5, 6, 7
Coptic Church, 229
demography, 160
language, 3
madrasas, 138
Ottoman conquest, 231
Sufism, 161
waqfs, 146
Eleni, Queen of Ethiopia, 231
Eliade, Mircea, 502, 505
Elias of Damascus, 122–3, 128
elites
Arab, 84–5
and conversion, 36
Icelandic, 87
and iconoclasm, 33 (p.520)
Mamluk, 160
Mongol, 36
Ottoman, 281, 283
Persianate, 396
Samanid, 324
Ellenblum, Ronnie, 157, 158
emigration, 91, 161–2
emirates, 231, 233
English language, 205
Epalza, Mikel de, 202
Eritrea, 227, 247
Ethiopia, 223–37
Addis Ababa, 235
ʿAfar people, 254
Amhara people, 229, 232, 233, 235
archaeology, 223, 247–53
Argobba people, 225, 227, 251
Berbera, 231, 249
Christianity, 223, 224, 225, 229, 231, 232, 237
Church, 236
feudalism, 233, 237
Franks, 233
geography, 223
Gondar, 232, 235
Harar, 249, 250f, 251–2, 260–1;
shrine of Amir Nur, 261f
Harlaa, 251–3
Islam, 224–30, 235;
resistance to, 231–3
isolationism, 232–3, 237
Kebra Negast, 224, 225, 227
Lalibela, 228
languages, 223
religious discrimination, 233
Solomonic dynasty, 229–30
Tigray, 228, 229, 232, 236
tribalism, 224
warfare, 260–1
Zagwe dynasty, 228–9
Zailaʿ, 228, 230, 231, 232, 249–50
zawiyas, 235 see also Aksum
Euthymius, 88
Farid al-Din Ganj-i Shakar, Shaykh see Baba Farid
Faridun, King, 401
Fasilidas, Emperor of Ethiopia, 232
Fatimids, 5, 224, 228
Fauvelle-Aymar, F.-X., 248–9
Fazlullah, Rashiduddin:
Jami al-Tawarikh, 48n111
Feridun Beg:
Mecmuʿa-yı Münşeat ül-Selâtin, 282, 284
Fiji, 29
Fine, John V. A., Jr, 279
Firdawsi:
Shahnama, 356, 395–6, 397, 398, 405f, 406f, 407f, 408f, 409f, 410f, 411f
Firuz Tughluq, Sultan, 385
Fisher, H. J., 24, 246
Flood, Finbarr, 396
Floris, Peter (Pieter Willemsz van Elbinck), 447
Fowden, Elizabeth, 93
Francis of Assisi, St, 45n74
Franciscans, 279
Franks, 156, 158, 159, 233
French language, 205
Frenkel, Yehoshua, 161
Furati, Mevla (attrib.):
Kırk Suʾal, 302
futuwwa, 145–6, 147
Galawdewos, Emperor of Ethiopia, 232
Galland, Antoine, 307
Gama, Vasco da, 231
Ganges River, 383
García Sanjuán, Alejandro, 204, 207
Gaspar de Lisboa, 45n74
Gaza, 162–71
battles, 162, 164
Bedouins, 164, 165
Christians, 167
countryside near, 168–71
al-Halabi on, 164
Ibn Battuta on, 165
Jews, 167
Mamluk-era inscriptions, 166–7
mosques, 165, 166, 167f, 172, 179n60
port, 172
al-’Umari on, 164, 165, 171
Yakut on, 162
Geikhatu, Ilkhan, 359, 361, 362, 363
genealogy, 70, 400
George I, Catholicos, 89, 90
George Tupou, King of Tonga, 34
Georgia, 37, 47n102
Ghana
Kano Chronicle, 27, 30
Kitab Ghonja, 27
al-Ghassani, ‘Abd al-Masih al-Najrani, 127
al-Ghawri, al-Ashraf Qanṣuh, Sultan, 179n60
Ghazan Khan, 23, 27, 43n48, 45n70, 355, 357, 359, 361
al-Ghazi, Ahmad b. Ibrahim, Imam (Gragn), 231–2, 261
Ghiyath al-Din Balban see Ulugh Khan
Ghiyath al-Din Kaykhusraw I, 141
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Sultan, 385
Ghosh, Mkhitar, 146
Ghurids, 400
Gibson, Thomas, 38 (p.521)
Gillette, Maris, 509
Giri, Sunan, 426–7, 434, 435
Glick, Thomas F., 205
On G’nur Ban, 481
Golden Horde, 8, 355
Gonzaga, Francesco, 45n74
Graaf, H. J. de, 1, 428
graffiti, 92
graves, 3, 435
Greek language, 141, 158
Greeks, 136
Green, Nile, 33
Güchlüg, 363
Guernier, Eugène:
La Berbérie, l’Islam et la France, 189
Guichard, Pierre, 203–4
Gunung Jati, Sunan, 425, 428, 432, 433
Hadiwijaya, Sultan of Pajang, 440n69
Hafsunids, 201
hagiographies
Bengali, 383
Christian, 122–5
Yasavi, 342, 344
al-Hajj ʿIsa b. Mahmud, 143
al-Hakam II, Caliph, 202
Halevi, Leor, 3
al-Hamadhani, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. al-Faqih, 104
Hamawi, Sadr al-Din, 357
Hamzah, Amir, 475, 476, 484
Hanafism, 200, 296, 304–5
Hanafiyyah, Muhammad Ali, 475, 476, 484
Hanaway, William, 394
Hanoka, Mimi, 111
Haour, Anne, 23
Haroun, Mat Sales (Muhammad Salih Kemboja), 481
Hasan IX, Sultan of the Maldives, 47n102
Hasan b. al-Nuʿman, 193
Hasan Gangu (Zafar Khan), 402
Hasan-i Sabbah, 321, 326
Hassan b. ‘Atiyya, 127
Hassen, Mohammed, 235
Hawaii, 32
Haydar, Mirza Muhammad:
Tarikh-i Rashidi, 363
Hazarahs, 323
Hazini, Shaykh, 342
Cevahirü’l- Ebrar, 342
Jamiʿ al-Murshidin, 342–3
Herzegovina, 282, 284, 285
Heywood, Colin, 277
Hillenbrand, Carole, 139, 143
Himyarites, 85
Hindu Kush, 323
Hirsch, B., 249
Horton, R. H., 8, 246
Hu Dengzhou, 500
Hülegü Khan, 355, 358, 362
Hunayn b. Ishaq, 56–7, 59, 62, 65, 67
Hungarians, 277, 278, 353
Husen, Raden, 426, 427
Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter, 159, 171
Ibadites, 194, 195, 256
Ibn ‘Abd al-Hakam, 191f
Ibn al-ʿAs, ʿAmr, 86
Ibn al-Athir, 142
Ibn al-Faqih:
Kitab al-Buldan, 106, 108
Ibn al-Fuwati, 144
Ibn al-Munajjim, 56
Ibn ‘Arabi, 38, 141
Ibn Battuta, 145, 165
Ibn Bibi, 140–1
Ibn Hafsun, 204
Ibn Hawqal, 199, 325
Ibn Hawshab ‘Mansur al-Yaman’, 320
Ibn Hisham:
Sirat Rasul Allah, 227
Ibn ‘Idhari, 192
Ibn Khaldun, 190, 192–3, 225
Kitab al-ʿIbar, 195
Muqaddima, 195
Ibn Masarra, 201–2
Ibn Mi’mar, 145
Ibn Rustam, imam, 194
Ibn Sa’d, 86–7
Ibn Shaddad:
al-Aʿlaq al-Khatira, 164
Ibn Taghri Birdi, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf:
al-Nujum al-Zahira fiMuluk Misr wa’l-Qahira, 179n53
Ibn Ziyad, Ibrahim, 227
Iceland:
conversion to Christianity, 87
iconoclasm, 32–4, 39
al-Idrisi, 228
Idrisids, 195
Ifat sultanate, 230
Ifriqiya, 193, 194, 195, 201
Ilkhanids, 355–6, 357–63, 396
Iltutmish, Shams al-Din, Sultan, 398–9
Imber, Colin, 282
Imbert, Frédéric, 92
immanentism, 25, 30–1, 32–3, 34, 36, 38, 136
India
ancient, 380
Ayodhya, 109
Bahmani Sultanate, 401, 402
Baudhayana-Dharmasutra, 380, 382, 388
Brahmans, 380, 382
caste system, 380–1, 382 (p.522)
Census of India (1931), 380, 382
Dawlatabad, 401, 402
Deccan Sultanate, 396
Delhi, 399, 400, 404
Delhi Sultanate, 384–5, 393, 402–4
frontier regions, 323
Hindu culture, 35, 36, 37, 379, 380, 382, 383, 384, 385, 388; see also Brahmans
Hindu nationalists, 109
missionaries, 379–82, 383
non-Muslims, 6
Persianate culture, 393–4, 402–4
Saka era, 488n56
Sindh, 8, 16n36, 485n7
temple destruction, 109 see also Bengal; Lahore; Punjab
Indonesia
conversion process, 445
Joseph story, 446–7, 448
Sasak people, 475–6
Wetu Telu group, 475
inscriptions, 3
al-Andalus, 258–9
Essuk/Tadmekka, 256
Gao, 260
Gorongobo, 259f
Mamluk, 166–7
Insoll, Timothy, 7, 33–4
Iran
Bam, 110, 111
conversion process, 6
culture, 4, 76–7
Darabjird, 104, 105
Fars, 89, 104, 107
Furdujan, 105–7, 108
Gilan, 107
Jur (Firuzabad), 104
Kariyan, 104–5
Khurasan, 107
kingship, 3
Kirman, 111–12
languages, 3
Mongol, 355, 356, 359
personal names, 69, 71, 75
Qazwin, 107
Qom, 106, 107–8
Rayy, 107
Shiites, 16n40
Sistan, 103–4, 105
Zoroastrians, 353;
fire temples, 102–12
Iranshah b. Abi al-Khayr:
Bahmannama, 402
Iraq
Baghdad, 145
Bible, 157
conversion process, 6, 7
Umayyads, 194
‘Isami, ‘Abd al-Malik:
Futuh al-Salatin, 402–4
Ishoʿyahb III, Catholicos, 89, 90
Islamisation
phases of, 9
usage of term, 3–4, 94n5, 473
Ismailis, Badakhshan, 201, 317–28
daʿwa (summons), 319, 320, 321, 324–5
frameworks of study, 321–4
identity, 327
sources of study, 319–21
Israyel, Bishop, 46n87
Iyasu I, Emperor of Ethiopia, 235
Iyasu II, Emperor of Ethiopia, 235
İzniki, Kutbeddin:
Mukaddime, 299
‘Izz al-Din Kayka’us I, Sultan, 140, 141
Jaffa, 172
al-Jahiz, Amr b. Bahr:
Kitab al-Hayawan, 104
Jalal al-Din Muhammad, Sultan of Bengal, 37, 47n102
Jamshid, King, 396–7
janissaries, 280, 283, 284, 285
The Laws of the Janissaries, 280, 281–2
Japan, 22, 40n3
Jaspan, M. A., 481, 482
al-Jassas al-Razi:
Mukhtasar Ikhtilaf al-ʿUlamaʾ, 127
Java, 419–36, 421f
Amir Hamza story, 475
Batavia, 451
Bintara, 426
Cirebon, 423, 425, 427, 432, 433
Demak, 419, 422–3, 424, 425, 428, 430, 432, 433, 436
Giri, 423
Gresik, 423, 434–6
Joseph stories, 446, 447, 449–53, 452f, 455–60
Majapahit, 427, 431, 432, 434, 435, 436
Mataram, 425, 429, 430–1
Mula Ning Manusa (The Origin of Man), 476
smuggling, 440n72
sources:
Babad Demak, 429;
Babad Tanah Jawi, 27, 425–7, 428–9, 430–1, 434;
Hikayat Hasanuddin, 429–30, 431–2, 433;
The History of Java (Raffles), 423–4, 430, 432, 434, 435;
‘The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cirebon’, 436n4;
new interpretation of, 430–4; Purwaka Caruban Nagari, 427–8, 430, 431, 432, 433;
reliability of, 428–30;
Suma Oriental (Pires), 422–3, 429, 431, 432, 433, 434
trade, 421, 422, 423
Tuban, 423, 439n66
al-Jawhari, Bukhari:
Taj al-Salatin, 475
Jawisation, 474, 479–83 (p.523)
al-Jawli, ‘Alam al-Din Sanjar, 165–6
al-Jazari, 43n48
Jerusalem
Arabic tombstones, 157–8
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 228
Mamluk-era inscriptions, 166
Sufis, 161
Jesuits, 232
Jesus Christ
Christian belief in, 59, 60
divinity of, 66, 67
and King David, 60
as a prophet, 62, 64, 455
Jews
al-Andalus, 200, 202
Gaza, 167, 171
and interreligious marriage, 129
persecution of, 106
Qurh, 85
Southern Levant, 157 see also Judaism
al-Jibal, 107
jihad, 6, 109
Jinbun see Cu Cu
John of Damascus:
De haeresibus, 126
John the Baptist, 60, 61, 62
Judaism, 5, 85; see also Jews
Juvayni, ʿAtaʾ Malik, 358, 363
Juynboll, A. T. W., 303
Juzjani, Minhaj-i Siraj, 354, 356–7, 404
Tabaqat-i Nasiri, 399–401
Kahaumanu, high chiefess of Hawaii, 32
Kahina, the ‘Prophetess’, 192–3
Kanajeji, King of Ghana, 27, 30, 45n69
Kangxi emperor, 505
Karatay, Jalal al-Din, 140
Kasila, Prince, 192
Kastritsis, Dimitris, 282
Kayghalagh, governor of Rayy, 107
Kaykavus b. Iskandar:
Qabusnama, 401
Kazakhs see Qazaqs
Kefeli, Agnès Nilüfer: Becoming Muslim in Imperial Russia: Conversion, Apostasy, and Literacy, 445, 446
Kemboja, Muhammad Salih see Haroun, Mat Sales
Kennedy, Hugh, 395
al-Khallal, Ahmad b. Muhammad, 126–7
Kharijites, 194, 298
Khubilai Khan, 355, 359–60, 362, 498
Khunjandi, Khamal, 45n77
Khusrau, King, 472
Khuzistan, 107
Khwandamir, Ghiyath al-Din, 363
Ki Gedeng Alang-alang, kuwu of Cerbon, 427
kings, 25–7, 28, 32, 37–8
Kinra, Rajeev, 396
kinship, 24–5
Kirmani, Hamid al-Din, 324
Kishli Khan, 403
Klis, 285
Kongo, 29, 33
Köprülü, Mehmed Fuad, 336–8
Korobeinikov, Dimitri, 142
Krstić, Tijana, 8, 285
Kunt, Metin, 286–7
Kurds, 178n48
Kuripeši, Benedikt, 284
Lacantius, 28
Lahire, Bernard, 121
Lambton, Ann, 395
Lanang, Wali, Shaykh, 426
language
and conversion, 298–9
and genealogy, 70
invaders’ impact on, 156–7
and scholarship, 205
vernacular, 3
Lebna Dengel, 231, 232
Ledesma Ramos, Ramiro, 206
Leiser, Gary, 138, 139, 140
el-Leithy, Tamer, 146, 161
Levant see Southern Levant
Levine, Donald M., 229, 233
Levtzion, N., 9, 259
Levy-Rubin, Milka, 157, 158
Lewis, Bernard, 159, 204, 254
Li Zhi, 500
Lieberman, Victor, 35
Ligg Yasu, 237
lineages, 32
Chinese, 497, 499–500, 507
Persian, 400, 401, 70
Sufi, 340
Linseele, Veerle, 253
Liu Sanjie:
Huihui Yuanlai, 502, 504–5
Liu Zhi, 501, 511n18
Tianfang Zhisheng Shilu, 503–4
Lombard, D., 419–21
LütfiPasha
Kitab Tenbihü’l-ʿAkılin ve Tenkidü’l Gafilin, 303
Risale-i Suʾal ve Cevap, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306
Tuhfetü’t-Talibin, 301
Luz, Nimrod, 161
al-Ma’afiri, Abu’l-Khattab, 194
Ma Huan:
Yingyai Shenglan, 434–5
Ma Laichi, 506–7
Ma Migxin, 507
Ma Tai Baba, 506 (p.524)
MacDonald, R. H., 260
Madelung, Wilferd, 317
madrasas
Anatolia, 138–41, 142, 143
China, 506, 509
Egypt, 138
Syria, 138
Maghrib, 8, 190, 194; see also Algeria; Morocco
magic, 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 46n77, 445–6, 453; see also supernatural
Mahfuz, Imam of Harar, 231
Makota of Kutai, Raja, 26
Malay language, 445, 474, 480, 482
Malay literature, 472–3, 476, 477, 482
Hikayat Bandjar, 23, 46n89
Hikayat Hang Tuah, 23
Hikayat Patani, 26
Hikayat Yusuf, 47n95, 444–60
Salasilah Kutai, 26, 31, 38
Sejarah Melayu, 23, 26
Tales of the Prophets (Qiṣaṣ al-Anbiyāʾ), 447–8
Malaya, 23, 26, 27, 38, 482
Maldives, 27
Mali
conversion process, 24
Essuk/Tadmekka, 256–7
Songhai people, 259
Timbuktu, 261
al-Malik al-Muzaffar Sayf al-Din Qutuz al-Muʿizzi al-Turki, 164
Malik b. al-Dukhshum, 131n27
Malikism, 201
Mamluks, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 172, 284
Mansuriyya, 165
Manguin, Pierre-Yves, 23
al-Mansur, caliph, 496
Mansur II, amir, 324
Manzano, Eduardo, 204
Mappilas, 37
Marçais, Georges:
La Berbérie musulmane et l’Orient au moyen âge, 189
marriage
and faith, 304–5
Ilkhanids, 362
interethnic, 235, 422, 426, 428, 431, 496, 497, 498, 500
interreligious, 128, 142, 362–3
Mongols, 362
Punjab, 386
rituals, 128–9 see also divorce
Marwarudi, Fakhr al-Din Mubarak Shah:
Nisbatnama, 400
Marwazi, 29
Massaia, G., 236
al-Masʿudi, Abu’l Hasan b. Ali b. al-Husayn, 104
Mawlana Ibrahim, 423–4
Mažuranić, Matija, 282–3
Mazyar b. Qarin, governor of Tabaristan, 58
Mehmed II, Sultan, 279, 280, 281
Melchert, Christopher, 127
Melville, Charles, 356, 396
Ménage, Victor, 136
Menelik I, King of Ethiopia, 224, 227
Mesih Pasha, 285
al-Mihrani, Khadir, 161
Mikhail, Maged, 7
Minkov, Anton, 286, 287, 297
Miqdad b. Aswad, 120
miracles
America, 446
and conversion, 57
Jesus Christ, 66
Muhammad, Prophet, 25, 59, 60 see also magic
missionaries
Christian, 337, 379, 446, 453–5, 459
Ethiopia, 225
Ismaili daʿwa, 319, 320
Java, 428, 436
Kaba, 29, 40n3
Kongo, 33
Muslim, 379
Wahhabi, 509
Mogadishu, 228, 231
monasteries
Anatolia, 139, 140, 146
al-Andalus, 199
Bakchos the Younger and, 123–4
Bosnia, 279
Buddhist, 325
Ethiopia, 229, 230, 232, 236
Monastery of the Cross (near Jerusalem), 161
Muslim visits to, 126
Oman, 89
Möngke Khan, 354
Möngke Timür, 362
Mongolia, 505
Mongolian language, 156
Mongols
army, 355
Buddhism, 358, 359, 361, 362
China, 498
conversion process, 35, 85, 353–65 (p.525)
elites, 36
Gaza, 162
impact of, 156
Iran, 356, 358–9
and Persian culture, 396
personal names, 363
Secret History of the Mongols, 358
Syria, 175n26
Takht-i Sulayman fortress, 356 see also Ilkhanids
monotheism, 21, 25, 85, 119
Moraes Farias, P. F. de, 256
Morgan, Joseph, 195
Morocco, 193, 194, 195, 259
mosques
Bada’un, 396
Bengal, 383
at caravanserais, 147
China, 498, 506, 509, 511n20
churches and monasteries changed into, 139
construction of, 110–11
destruction of, 109
Gaza, 165, 172, 179n60
Harlaa, 251–2, 252f
Konya, 143
Ottoman Empire, 300–1
Mubarak Shah, 355
Mudrik b. Khut see al-ʿAbdi, Makhraba
Mughals, 382–3
conversion process, 36, 37
painting, 396
Persian language, 395
Muhammad, Prophet
on Abyssinia, 227
Biblical references to, 61
and China, 495–6
Chinese language biography of, 503–4
conversion of Arabian tribes, 87, 88
Hikayat Nur Muhammad, 476
in Hudaybiyya, 111
and Jurush, 85
on knowledge, 301
Malay stories of, 449
as a prophet, 60, 62, 64–5, 66, 119, 120, 126
and Quran, 56
respect for other religions, 105
and sacred spaces, 91
teachings, 59
Muhammad b. Tughluq, Sultan of Delhi, 385, 401–2, 403, 404
Muʿizz al-Din Muhammad b. Sam, Sultan, 393, 400
Mujashiʿ b. Masʿud, 110, 111
al-Muktafi(future caliph), 107
Muljana, Slamet, 419
al-Mulk, Nizam, 324
Mundhir b. Saʿid, 201
al-Muqaddasi, 85, 199
Murad III, Sultan, 282
Murad b. ʿAbdullah, 299
al-Muradi, 193
Musa b. Nusayr, governor of Ifriqiya, 193
Muslim b. al-Hajjaj, 108
Sahih Muslim, 119, 120, 125–6
Muslim Brotherhood, 508
Muslims
Chinese, 22, 421, 434, 435, 436, 497–510
Christian festival attendance, 126–7
relationship with non-Muslims, 120–1
Southern Levant, 157, 158 see also Shiites; Sufis; Sunni Muslims
Mustawfi, Hamdallah, 139
al-Muʿtadid, Caliph, 107
al-Muʿtasim, Caliph, 58
al-Mutawakkil, Caliph, 58, 61, 62
Muʿtazilism, 201
Muzaffar Shah, 422
Najm al-Din Zarkub of Tabriz, 146
Nalaputra of Sampang, 456
Naqshbandis, 279, 349n9, 506, 507
‘Confessional Ode’, 321
Safar-nama, 321
Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah, sultan of Delhi, 399, 401
al-Nasir Muhammad b. Qalawun, Sultan, 164, 165, 166, 179n60, 229
Nasir-i Khusraw 321, 323, 325–8, 384
Aʾina-yi Iskandari, 395
Nasiri of Sivas, 145
Nasr II b. Ahmad, amir, 324
Nawruz (Mongol Muslim commander), 355
Naysaburi, Ahmad b. Ibrahim, 320
Necipoğlu, Gülrü, 300, 301
Nestorians, 57, 59, 360, 361, 362
Niai Gedi Pinateh, 424
Nicaea, 134
Nicholas IV, Pope, 359
Nigeria:
Kano Chronicle, 33
Nirenberg, David, 106
Nishapur, 69, 71
Kitab Ahwal-i Nishapur, 111
Nixon, S., 256, 257
Nizami, Hasan, 404
Taj al-Maʾathir, 397–9
nomads, 164, 225, 256–7, 337, 339, 340, 357, 385
non-Muslims see dhimmis (p.526)
North Africa, 122; see also Maghrib; Tripolitania
Nosirwan, Po, 472, 474–5, 476, 477, 480
Nuʿaym b. Hammad:
Kitab al-Fitan, 203
Nubia, 224–5
Nuqdan Khatun, 359
Nur, Amir, 251
shrine, 261f
Nurcahaya, 483
Nursada, 483
Nurul Jati, Syeh, 427
Nushi e-Nasıhi, 296, 305, 309n20
Oakley, Francis, 26
Oceania, 37, 40n3
Oghuz Khan, 350n20
Oghuz Turks, 341, 344–5
Olagüe, Ignacio, 206–7
Öljeitü, Ilkhan, 30, 355, 359, 362–3
Omar, Ahmed Hassan, 225, 227
opinion polls, 76
origin myths, 23, 28, 400, 401, 502
Oromo people, 224, 233–7, 254, 261
Örüg Khatun, 359
Osman II, Sultan, 281
Østebø, T., 256–7
Ottoman Empire
ʿaqāʾid literature, 298, 300, 301–7
Cevahirü’l-İslam, 301–2, 303–4, 305–6, 307
Christians, 298
confessionalisation, 8
conversion process, 8
devşirme, 280–2, 283, 286–7
foundation myth, 281
kullars, 279, 283, 284
mosques, 300–1
muftis, 300
Sunnitisation/confessionalisation, 296
Ottomanisation, 283, 286
Ottomans
Bosnia, 277–87
conquest of Egypt, 231
and jihad, 6
Southern Levant, 159
Özbek Khan, 8, 45n73, 341
Padshah Khatun, 362
pagans, 5, 26, 27, 33, 40n90, 44n60, 50n136, 90, 95n15
Palestine
conversion process, 7
Mamluks, 162
personal names, 74
population, 174n13
Pamiris, 322, 327
Patah, Raden, 426, 427
patronage, 88
Paul, St, 62
Paul, Jürgen, 338
Perry, John, 394–5
Persia:
dynasties, 399–400; see also Iran
Persian culture, 35, 323, 356, 393–404
humanism in, 395
myths, 396–7
and Turks, 398–9
works, 395
Persian language, 3
Anatolia, 141, 144
Delhi courts, 393, 395, 404
dictionaries, 394
Persianisation, 393, 394
personal names, 69–77, 178n51, 387t
Bosnia, 286
Cambodia, 481
Cambridge University, 75
Essuk/Tadmekka, 256
Gao, 259
Iran, 69, 71, 75, 76
Konya, 143
logistic curves in research, 69, 70, 75, 76
Massachusetts, 74–5, 76
Mongols, 361, 363, 366n18
Palestine, 74
Punjab, 386, 388
Spain, 71
Turkey, 72
Philiponeau, Marie, 76
Pigeaud, Th. G. Th., 428, 451, 455, 456
pigs, 46n82
Pires, Tomé, 428
Suma Oriental, 422–3, 431, 432, 433, 434
Pluz, Hovhannes, 146
Pollock, Sheldon, 393
Polo, Marco, 327, 363
popular religion, 35
Portuguese, 37, 231, 232, 419
Poturnaks, 282, 283, 284–5, 286, 287
Prawer, Joshua, 158
prayer, 26–7, 126, 127, 305
preachers, 5
printing, 10
property, 89
proselytisation, 5, 37, 39, 40n8, 145, 227, 237, 251, 453–5, 484, 504
Ptak, R., 421
Pu Shougeng, 498
Punjab, 72–4, 380, 384, 385–6, 388
Puritans, 74
al-Qalqashandi, Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. ʿAli, 230
Qarakhitai:
Buddhism, 365n2 (p.527)
Qarakhitai Turks, 365n2, 399
Qarshi, Jamal, 356–7
Qayrawan, 192, 195, 200
Qazaqs, 340
Qilij Arslan, Sultan, 142
Qïpchaqs, 339, 355
Qïrghïz people:
Manas epic cycle, 31
Qultaq Egächi, 359
Qumis b. Antunyan, amir of Cordoba, 201
al-Qunawi, Hajji b. Muhammad b. ʿAbdallah al-Tājir, 144
Quran
and Bible, 227
Christians’ knowledge of, 126
and converts, 5
on the Honourable Seal, 110
on hypocrisy, 90–1
inimitability of, 56
inscriptions, 3, 92
interpretation of, 64, 201–2
Joseph story in, 447
al-Tabari’s commentary, 144
Turkish language, 301
Qurh, 85
Qutb al-Din Aybeg, 393, 398
Qutui Khatun, 358–9, 366n19
al-Qurtubi, Maslama b. Qasim, 202
Radushev, Evgeni, 287
Raffles, Thomas Stamford
The History of Java, 423–4, 430, 432, 434, 435
Rama Raya, 396
al-Raniri, Nur al-Din:
Bustan al-Salatin, 475
Rashid al-Din, 326, 350n20, 356, 357, 360, 361, 363
Rayy, 108
Razi, Najm al-Din, 144
Rebillard, Eric, 122
Red Sea, 231
Redford, Scott, 147
Reid, Anthony, 9, 38
Ricklefs, Merle, 27, 445
Riddell, Peter, 444–5
ritual systems, 32
Robin, Christian, 85
Robinson, Chase, 93
Rodim, Pate, 422
Rome:
church of St John Lateran, 28
Rome, Po, 478
rulers
and conversion, 21, 22–5, 33, 34, 36, 38, 39
supernatural powers of, 47n99 see also kings; kingship
Rum, 134, 141
Rumeli, 296–307
catechisation and conversion, 297–301
Rumi, Jalal al-Din, 141, 145
Mathnawi, 144
Russian Primary Chronicle, 29
Rycaut, Paul, 286
Sadeq, Mohamed-Moain, 172
al-Saʿdi, ʿAbd al-Rahman:
Taʾrikh al-Sudan, 23
Sadr al-Din, Pir, 328
Safad, 162, 172
al-Safadi:
al-Wafibi’l-Wafayat, 165–6
Safavids, 284, 296
Saffarids, 107
al-Safib. al-ʿAssal, 60
Sahara:
trade, 256, 258, 259
Sahel, Western, 254–7, 260
Sahlins, Marshall, 28
Sai Baba, 46n78
saints, 445
Bengal, 9
Borneo, 26
Ethiopia, 251, 261
Java, 424–5, 426
Sufi, 190, 195, 279 see also hagiography; shrines
al-Saj, Muhammad b. Abi, 107
Saladin (Salah al-Din), 159, 228
Salim family (Gaza), 165
Salima b. ʿIyadh al-Azdi, 86
Salmon, C., 419–21
Samanids, 107
Samarians, 157, 158
al-Samarqandi, Abu al-Layth
Bayan ʿAqidat al-Usul, 302–3
al-Muqaddima [as-salāt], 303
Risaletü’l-Esʾile ve’l-Ecvibe el-İʿtikadiyye, 303
Samarqandi, Abu’l-Qasim Ishaq:
al-Sawad al-Aʿzam, 324
San, Imam, 481, 483
Sánchez Albornoz, Claudio, 206
Sarta Dengel, 232
Sasaks, 483
Sasanians, 61, 104, 356, 397, 398, 400–4
Savant, Sarah, 102–3
Scandinavia:
conversion to Christianity, 84, 87, 322–3
Schoemann, Karl, 451
scripts
Brahmic, 483
Cham, 474, 478, 481
Jawi, 474, 479, 480
Sasak, 474
sectarian movements, 319, 323, 326–8 (p.528)
Sedaing Krapyak, Panembahan, 429, 431
Selim I, Sultan, 282, 284
Seljuq, 48n113
Seljuqs, 85, 134–48, 339
attitude to Christians, 141–2
support for Islam, 138
madrasas, 140–1, 142
waqfs, 139–41, 142
Şemsü’l-Eimme, 305
Shafiʿis, 339
Shah Jahan, 385
Shams al-Din, Pir, 328
Shams al-Din, qadi of Jerusalem, 165
Shams al-Din, Muhammad, Shaykh, 27
Shams al-Din Iltutmish, Sultan, 393
Shansabani dynasty, 401–2
sharia law, 3, 105, 160, 382
Sharif Hidayat Allah, kuwu of Cirebon, 428
Sharon, Moshe:
Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palestinae (CIAP), 161, 168–9, 172
Shaw, Stanford J., 283
al-Shaybani, Muhammad, 127
Sheba, Queen of, 224
Shepard, Jonathan, 28–9
Shiism, 30, 329n7, 484
Shiites, 16n40, 284, 317, 323; see also Ismailis
al-Shirazi, Muʾayyad fi’l-Din, 324
shrines, 146–7
Badakhshan, 326, 328
Bengal, 388
Ethiopia, 249, 261
Gaza, 172
Horn of Africa, 236
Kazakhstan, 336
Punjab, 384–5, 386
Shukurov, Rustam, 142
Siam:
missionaries, 40n3; see also Thailand
Silk Road, 35, 496, 498
Simonsohn, Uriel, 83
Singapore:
Joseph story, 449
Siu Ban Ci, 427, 430
Siyal clan, 73, 386
Siyal, Ray, 386
Sizgorich, Thomas, 126
slavery, 192, 193, 224
Smail, Raymond, 158
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, 282
Solem, Hj., 483
Solomon, King, 224
Somalia, 228, 254
Somaliland, 254
Sorghaghtani Beki, 358, 360, 362
South Asia, 379–89
conversion process, 36–7
distribution of Muslims in, 381f
temple desecration narratives, 109 see also Bengal; India; Punjab
South Sulawesi, 38
Southeast Asia, 420f
Akhar Thrah texts, 478–9, 480–1
conversion process, 6, 9, 22–3, 35, 36
hikayat literature, 23, 26, 46n89, 47n95, 424–5, 429–30, 431–2, 433, 473, 475, 476, 479, 484
Minangkabau Traditions, 477
Southern Levant, 156–73
Darum, 180n71
emigration, 161–2
Gaza, 162–71
Mamluks, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 172
religious and linguistic demography, 157–8
Sozomen, 88
Spain
Arab conquest, 4, 193, 206
personal names, 71
Shepherds’ Crusade (1320), 106 see also al-Andalus
Spanish language, 205
Spiro, Melford, 34
Sri Lanka, 37
Stjepan Kotromanić II, King of Bosnia, 277
Strathern, Alan, 354
Sub-Saharan Africa, 9, 244–62
conversion, 23, 35, 246–7
diet, 244, 253, 256, 258, 260, 262 see also Ethiopia; Somalia; Somaliland
Sufis
Bosnia, 279
and conversion, 5, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 38, 144–5, 147, 336, 337, 344, 347–8, 356–7, 359, 379, 381–2
Ethiopia, 235
Gaza, 172
Mamluk patronage of, 161
and pre-Islamic religious traditions, 9
Yasavi, 339 see also futuwwa; Naqshbandis
Sufism
Berbers and, 190
China, 506
Maghrib, 195
Qadiriyya, 261
Turks and, 148n3
Sulayman b. Qutlumush, 134
Süleyman, Sultan, 300 (p.529)
sultans
‘dual identity’ of, 141–2
and patronage, 147
Sumangsang, Pangeran, 431
Sumatra, 11, 422, 432, 433, 436, 447
Summa Theologiae Arabica, 118–19, 122, 129–30
Sungapati, Pangeran, 483
Sunni Muslims, 5
Badakhshan, 326
Bosnia, 285
China, 434
Ottoman Empire, 296
supernatural, 47n99; see also magic
Susenyos, Emperor of Ethiopia, 235
Sutawijaya, 440n69
Suzong, Emperor of China, 496
synagogues, 105, 167
syncretism, 4, 32, 33
synods, 89, 90
Syria
conversion process, 6
Crusaders, 7
landscape, 161
madrasas, 138
Mamluks, 159
Mongols, 175n26
non-Muslims, 7
population, 174n13 see also Bilad al-Sham
al-Tabari, Abu al-Hasan ʿAli b. Rabban Sahl, 57–63, 224, 227
Firdaws al-Hikma, 58, 59
Kitab al-Din wa’l-Dawla, 58, 60, 61–3, 67
Quran commentary, 144
Radd ʿala’l-Nasara, 58, 59–60, 66
al-Tabari, Abu Jaʿfar Muhammad b. Jarir, 58, 107, 108
Tabaristan, 107
Taghai Temür, 361
Taharids, 107
al-Tahi, Asad b.Yabrah, 86
Tahir al-Din b. Shams al-Din:
Bam-nama, 110, 112
Taizong, Emperor of China, 495–6
Taj al-Din, Hasan, 44n67
Takla Haymanot, St, 230
Taşköprüzade:
al-Shaqaʾiq al-Nuʿmaniyya, 136
Tan Go Hwat, 427, 430
Tariq (Berber), 193
al-Tarjuman, ʿAbdallah see Turmeda, Anselmo
Tarmashirin Khan, 41n20, 357
Tarsusi (Tarusi), Abu Tahir Muhammad b. Hasan b. ʿAli b. Musa:
Darabnama, 395
Tatarstan, 446
taxation, 7
Anatolia, 136
Bosnia, 278, 284, 285, 286
Gaza, 171
jizya (‘poll tax’), 142
Qom, 107–8
Tegdaoust, 254
Tegüder, Ahmad, 31, 355, 357, 358–9, 363
Terken Khatun, 362
Terzioğlu, Derin, 296
Tesfa Iyesus see Yikunno Amlak, Emperor
Thailand, 480; see also Siam
Theodore of Mopsuestia, 60
Thorgilsson, Ari:
Íslendingabók, 87
Thrace, 140
Tibet, 505
Timur, Emperor, 385
tombstones, 3, 157–8, 258
Tor, Deborah, 338, 394
trade
China, 421, 496, 498
Ethiopia, 227–8, 233, 237, 252–3
Java, 421, 422, 423
Red Sea coast, 248
Sahara, 256, 258, 259
Southeast Asia, 22–3, 419–20
Western Sahel, 254, 262
transcendentalism, 25, 34–7, 39
Trenggana, Sultan, 425, 431–2
Trimingham, J. Spencer, 235, 246, 339
Tripoli, 172, 192
Tripolitania, 194
Tuan di Parangan, 26
Tuaregs, 261
Tükles, Baba, 45n73, 341, 357
Turan, Osman, 137, 138, 139, 140, 145
Turkey see Anatolia; Sivas
Turkish language, 3–4, 144
Turkish literature, 144, 298–300; see also Ottoman Empire: ʿaqāʾid literature
Turkmen, 147, 178n48
Turks
Anatolia see Seljuqs
Central Asia, 336–48, 365n2
and Persians, 398–9
Turmeda, Anselmo (Abdallah al-Tarjuman), 58, 63–7
Tuhfat al-Adib fī’l-Radd ʿala Ahl al-Salib, 63, 65
Tusi, ʿAli b. Ahmad Asadi:
Lughat-i Furs, 394
ʿUbaydallah b. Abi Bakra, 103–5
ʿUbaydallah b. al-Habhab, 193
Ubayy b. Kaʿb, 87
al-ʿUlaymi, Mujir al-Din, 161 (p.530)
Ullendorf, Edward, 224, 228
Ulugh Khan (Ghiyath al-Din Balban), 400
ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAziz, Caliph, 67, 111, 202
ʿUmar b. al-Khattab, 129
ʿUmar b. Hafsun, 199
Umar Maya (ʿAmr b. ʿUmayya), 476
al-ʿUmari, Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Yahya b. Fadlallah, 164, 165, 171, 230
Umayyads, 5, 194, 202, 496
ʿUqba b. Nafiʿ, 192, 194
Usama b. Zayd, 119
al-ʿUtbi, 203
ʿUthman, Caliph, 111
Uyghur Turk, 496, 506
Uyghurs, 506, 509
Uzunçarşılı, I. H., 281
van den Boogert, Jochem, 459
van der Molen, Willem, 451
van Ronkel, Phillipus, 447
Vietnam
Book of Nosirwan, 472, 476
Cham people, 472, 474–84
Jawisation, 474, 481
Mekong Delta, 481, 482
Vijayanagara sultanate, 396
Vladimir of Rus, 28–9
Vryonis, Speros, 145, 162
The Decline of Hellenism and the Process of Islamization in Medieval Anatolia, 136, 138, 139, 140
Wade, G., 421, 429
Wahhabism, 508, 509
Waktu Lima, 483
Walad, Sultan, 141
Walangsungsang, kuwu of Cerbon, 427–8
Wali Songo (Nine Saints) of Java, 424–5, 426
waqfiyyas, 139–40, 142–3, 144, 146, 147
waqfs, 138–41, 146
Waqqas, Sa’d b. Abi, 504
warfare, 29, 225, 260–1; see also jihad
Wasif (slave soldier), 107
al-Wathiq, Caliph, 58
Waziri, Ahmad ʿAli Khan:
Tarikh-i Kirman, 110, 111
Weitman, Sasha, 74
Wen Ti, Emperor of China, 503–4
Wensinck, A. J., 297–8
West Africa, 27, 33
West Asia, 38
William of Rubruck, 142, 362, 363
Winroth, Anders, 84, 323
women
conversion of husbands, 362–3
and divorce, 129
and faith, 305
and marriage, 128–9
Mongol, 357–8
moral guidance of, 482
Turko-Muslim, 362–3
Wood, Philip, 7–8
Xuanzang (Buddhist pilgrim), 325
Yaghi Arslan, 142
Yaji, King of Ghana, 27
al-Yaman, Jaʿfar b. Mansur:
Kitab al-ʿAlim wa’l-Ghulam, 320
al-Yaʿqubi:
Kitab al-Buldan, 227
Yaqut b. ʿAbdallah, Shihab al-Din Abu ʿAbdallah:
Kitab Muʿjam al-Buldan, 162, 169
Yasavi, Ahmad, 336–48
as a poet, 337–8
as a saint, 340–7
Yazdagird III, King, 104, 400
Yazıcızade Ahmed:
Envarü’l-Aşikin, 299
Yazıcızade Mehmed:
Muhammediye, 299
Yazid b. Ali Muslim, 193
‘Year of the Missions’ (628), 504
Yemen, 85
Yesünjin Khatun, 358
Yikunno Amlak, Emperor (Tesfa Iyesus), 229
Yohannes I of Ethiopia, 232, 233
Yongle, Emperor of China, 499
Zafar Khan see Hasan Gangu
Zahhak (mythic Arab ruler), 400–1
Zara Yacob, King of Ethiopia, 231
Zeynal of Giri, pate, 423, 432
Zhao Rugua (Chinese geographer), 440n72
Zhelyazkova, Antonina, 286
Zheng He, 434–5, 436n4, 499
Zhu Yuanzhang, Emperor of China, 498
Ziyad b. Abihi, viceroy, 103
Zokomos, 88
Zoroastrians, 353
fire temples, 102–12