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The Near WestMedieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the Second Axial Age$
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Allen Fromherz

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780748642946

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642946.001.0001

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A Second Axial Age

(p.209) 7 Conclusions
The Near West

Allen James Fromherz

Edinburgh University Press

This concluding chapter reviews how in the twelfth century midpoint, major religious traditions throughout Eurasia and North Africa experienced a great spiritual transformation. The rise of commercial wealth and trade and the interactions between different faiths sparked this spiritual revival. This could be called a Second Axial Age: a world historical transformation marked by profound changes and encounters both within and between matured religious traditions and cultures. A rise of mystical thinkers and esoteric knowers of universal spiritual truths came to change the nature of religious traditions throughout Eurasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Mediterranean. But perhaps the most profound changes occurred in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism and the twelfth-century mystical awakening of Sufism, Kabbalah, and the Minor Friars.

Keywords:   Second Axial Age, religious traditions, spiritual transformation, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Sufism, Kabbalah, Minor Friars

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