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The Near WestMedieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the Second Axial Age$
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Allen Fromherz

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780748642946

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642946.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM EDINBURGH SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.edinburgh.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Edinburgh University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ESO for personal use.date: 27 September 2021

Conclusions

Conclusions

A Second Axial Age

Chapter:
(p.209) 7 Conclusions
Source:
The Near West
Author(s):

Allen James Fromherz

Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642946.003.0008

This concluding chapter reviews how in the twelfth century midpoint, major religious traditions throughout Eurasia and North Africa experienced a great spiritual transformation. The rise of commercial wealth and trade and the interactions between different faiths sparked this spiritual revival. This could be called a Second Axial Age: a world historical transformation marked by profound changes and encounters both within and between matured religious traditions and cultures. A rise of mystical thinkers and esoteric knowers of universal spiritual truths came to change the nature of religious traditions throughout Eurasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Mediterranean. But perhaps the most profound changes occurred in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism and the twelfth-century mystical awakening of Sufism, Kabbalah, and the Minor Friars.

Keywords:   Second Axial Age, religious traditions, spiritual transformation, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Sufism, Kabbalah, Minor Friars

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