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The Near WestMedieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the Second Axial Age$
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Allen Fromherz

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780748642946

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642946.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM EDINBURGH SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.edinburgh.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Edinburgh University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ESO for personal use.date: 13 October 2019

Marrakech

Marrakech

The Founding of a City

Chapter:
(p.119) 4 Marrakech
Source:
The Near West
Author(s):

Allen James Fromherz

Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642946.003.0005

This chapter details the founding of the city of Marrakech, which was regarded as a purely original Islamic city —a citadel to the unifying reforms of the Almoravid and Almohad Berber empires. Over time, despite some efforts to prevent religious diversity under both Islamic empires, the city almost irresistibly emerged as a cosmopolis. The conflict between Almoravid and Almohad ideals could be best seen in the history of Marrakech. In relating the story of the mouth veil, the chapter shows how it was as much about the transformation of religious and ethnic identity as it was about the flipping of gender symbols in the midst of conquest. The Almohads made good use of the Almoravid male veil in their propaganda against degenerate effetes who had done, decades earlier, what the Almohads themselves hoped to do: conquer much of Al-Andalus and North Africa.

Keywords:   Marrakech, Almoravid, Almohads, mouth veil, religious identity, ethnicity, Al-Andalus, North Africa

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