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JawanmardiA Sufi Code of Honour$
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Lloyd Ridgeon

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780748641826

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748641826.001.0001

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Introduction: Medieval Sufi-Futuwwat/Jawanmardi

Introduction: Medieval Sufi-Futuwwat/Jawanmardi

Chapter:
(p.1) Introduction: Medieval Sufi-Futuwwat/Jawanmardi
Source:
Jawanmardi
Author(s):

Lloyd Ridgeon

Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:10.3366/edinburgh/9780748641826.003.0009

From the early years of Islamic history until the twelfth century, a number of groups appeared in Arabic- and Persian-speaking regions that were described by the term futawwat. This term originated from the Arabic word fata, which means a young man; thus futawwat is a term to denote ‘young-manliness’. It is also used to describe groups of young Arabs who enjoyed a hedonistic lifestyle. In the medieval period, a Persian synonym for futawwat appeared. This is jawanmardi (literally, young manliness), which was attributed to Ya،qub ibn al-Layth and his followers in the nineteenth century, who created a form of autonomy in Iran. Critics referred to Ya،qub ibn al-Layth in derogatory terms, and by the eleventh century, jawanmardi was associated with the ،ayyar or bandit. Nevertheless, some aspects of the worldview of ،ayyar were similar to the Sufis', bandits which were fashioned in a positive manner. By the eleventh century, futawwat/jawanmardi was applied to a wider cross-section of society. This book focuses on three treatises that reveal the different facets of the Sufi-jawanmardi tradition. It discusses Suhrawardi's Kitab fi،l-futawwat; Futawwat Nama of Mirza ،Abd al-،Azim; and Husayn Wa،iz Kashifi's Treatise of Hatim.

Keywords:   Islamic history, futawwat, fata, jawanmardi, ،ayyar, Sufi-jawanmardi, Kitab fi،l-futawwat, Treatise of Hatim

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