Chapter 3 presents descriptions and analyses of different kinds of phonetic notation systems, including iconic, analogical, analphabetic and alphabetic notation, with a particular focus on the latter. Notation of voice pitch is also looked at. Attention is paid to structural properties of phonetic symbols of the alphabetic type from those of Iceland’s ‘First Grammarian’, through the ‘English School’ phoneticians of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and Lepsius’s ‘Standard Alphabet’, to Sweet’s ‘Romic’ notation and the symbols of the International Phonetic Association (IPA), including IPA Braille. How symbols relate to their denotata is considered, and a typological classification of alphabetic phonetic symbols is proposed with exemplifications from the IPA.
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