The traditional model of citizenship is one based at the state level. Yet developments (processes of globalisation along with growing pluralisation of western societies) have led some to call this state-centric model into question. As rights become increasingly based not upon nationality but residency (as human rights discourses become more prominent), and political activism on global causes is directed beyond the nation state, citizenship seems to be changing its locus. In this chapter we will examine these theories of post-national and cosmopolitan citizenship, and probe similarities and differences.
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