The final chapter deals with the higher-level issue of what constitutes the same language. The notion of panlectal grammars is critically assessed and lack of knowledge of other speakers' dialect forms is considered as something not addressed by them. Phonological and lexical mergers are considered and the role of standardization in notions of lexical sameness. Abstractness of phonological forms and its relevance to different levels of variation is discussed. Some three-consonant clusters of English are used as an example of the use of abstractness to cover different realizational variants.
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