This chapter considers aspects of the archaeology of non-urban environments across the Islamic world. The first section is concerned with the employment of field surveys and excavations to track changing patterns of settlement in rural areas. The methodological difficulties of interpreting survey data are evaluated. The second section uses case studies from Iraq, Iran, Oman, and Spain to explore the evolution and long-term impact of complex irrigation systems. The final section assesses the evidence for the processing of lucrative agricultural products with an emphasis upon sugar mills. Using examples from southwestern Iran, the Jordan Valley, and Morocco this section considers the technology, capital investment, and man-power involved in the production of sugar and molasses and the reasons for the rise and decline of this industry.
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