This chapter describes the main medicinal substances that were distributed as a result of the Muslim conquests. It presents about half of nearly a hundred of these substances. Most of the entries in this chapter discuss substances that were clearly identified, along with evidence of practical uses in medical books and prescriptions, as well as commercial documents. Exploration of these is limited only to the typical medicinal substances, some of which had also been used as spices, perfumes, dyes, and gemstones. These drugs were commonly used for long periods, many of them having been utilized until the nineteenth century. In this manner, the long-term contribution of the Arabs in introducing the ‘new’ drugs in the Old World is clearly demonstrated.
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