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Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa$
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Roman Loimeier

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780748695430

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748695430.001.0001

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Reform in Context III: Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia

Reform in Context III: Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia

(p.221) 5 Reform in Context III: Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia
Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa

Roman Loimeier

Edinburgh University Press

This chapter departs from both preceding as well as following chapters in so far as it does focus on four local contexts, namely Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. These case studies serve to demonstrate the importance of the local context for the emergence of Salafi-oriented movements of reform. A major reason for the failure of Salafi-oriented reform in Chad was the virtual absence of significant middle class groups that would have supported the development of a popular mass movement of reform; in the case of Ethiopia, reasons for the failure of Salafi-oriented reform were the highly fragmented character of Ethiopia’s society and again the absence of significant middle class groups. In Somalia, the success of Salafi-oriented movements of reform and the emergence of jihad-minded groups (al-Shabab) can be explained by the dynamics of the civil war since 1988. The success of Salafi-oriented reform in Sudan was linked with the growth of strong middle class groups in the urban centres as well as the ability of Hasan al-Turabi, the major leader of Salafi-minded reform in Sudan since the 1960s, to provide the “Islamic Movement” in the Sudan with a successful long-term political strategy that led to the take-over of power in 1989.

Keywords:   Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, al-Shabab, Hasan al-Turabi, Middle class groups, Islamic movement

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