The 2004 Irish Citizenship Referendum
Chapter 2 considers how existing citizenship scholarship now understood as ‘the Citizenship Debate’ can be explored in more detail at a national level through the lens of the 2004 Irish Citizenship Referendum. This chapter draws on a wealth of primary sources (including media analysis, parliamentary speeches, debates, reports and legislation) and academic analysis to outline the dominant sovereign understanding of the citizen-subject in discussions surrounding this referendum. The arguments surrounding this referendum are linked to the two main theoretical models which have dominated current citizenship scholarship: a particular (exclusive) model, and a universal (inclusive) model of citizenship. This chapter demonstrates how both models in The Citizenship Debate ignore hybrid possibilities of political subjectivity which exceed the discursive space made available by a statist account of time and space. This chapter draws on the work of cutting edge theorists within the field of critical citizenship studies such as Ayelet Shachar and Sandro Mezzadra to consider the importance and possibility of naming and confronting how both the problem and the solution to citizenship have come to be located in a modern sovereign statist dualistic framework.
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