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A History of Military Occupation from 1792 to 1914$
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Peter M. R. Stirk

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780748675999

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748675999.001.0001

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The Era of the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars

The Era of the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars

(p.39) Chapter 1. The Era of the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars
A History of Military Occupation from 1792 to 1914

Peter M. R. Stirk

Edinburgh University Press

This chapter demonstrates how military occupation as a distinct concept and practice emerged in this period, though it emphasises that this was not a clear and unilinear process. It argues that the provisionality of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic orders was a key factor in promoting the concept and practice of military occupation. The doctrines of the French Revolution, often argued to be decisive, are shown to have been more ambiguous. It emphasises the practice of French armies and attempts by French generals and political authorities to control the behaviour of the armies and the administrative agencies set up to administer occupied territory. It shows how occupied populations, especially administrative and police officials were caught between the need to cooperate with the occupant and fear of being seen as traitors. It also argues for the importance of non-belligerent occupations, those established under peace treaties or other conventions, in understanding occupation. Allied military occupation at the end of the Napoleonic wars is shown to have striking clarity about occupation. It comments finally on the earlier responses of courts to these developments.

Keywords:   Revolution, Napoleon, Provisionality, Liberation, Conquest, Military Occupation

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