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The Long 1890s in EgyptColonial Quiescence, Subterranean Resistance$
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Marilyn Booth and Gorman Anthony

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780748670123

Published to Edinburgh Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748670123.001.0001

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Cromer’s Assault on ‘Internationalism’:

Cromer’s Assault on ‘Internationalism’:

British Colonialism and the Greeks of Egypt, 1882–1907

(p.253) 9 Cromer’s Assault on ‘Internationalism’
The Long 1890s in Egypt

Alexander Kazamias

Edinburgh University Press

This chapter examines the relationship between British colonialism and Egypt’s largest foreign resident community, the Greeks. Drawing on postcolonial theory, the analysis argues that since 1882 British colonialism began to turn Egypt’s Greeks into semi-colonial subjects and, in so doing, colonial officials like Lord Cromer posed a greater threat to Egypt’s urban cosmopolitanism than the burgeoning Egyptian nationalist movement. Using Greek, Egyptian, British and French archival sources, the discussion focuses on the three main responses of Egypt’s Greeks towards Cromer’s policies, described respectively as ‘collaboration’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘resistance’. The chapter closes with the proposition that, in contrast to the dominant assumptions in Diaspora Studies approaches, British colonialism deepened divisions within the Greek community and, until 1899, it elicited a predominantly nationalist response in the form of George Averoff’s policy of ‘negotiation’.

Keywords:   Diaspora, British colonialism, postcolonial theory, Greeks, Minorities, Alexandria, Lord Cromer, negotiation, cosmopolitanism, nationalism

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