This chapter analyses the process of industrialisation in Scotland. It asks why there were unprecedented increases in rates of output in, first, textiles, then iron and steel, heavy engineering, and shipbuilding. It highlights Scots' ability to take advantage of the development of a truly international economy, with nations specialising in what they could produce better or cheaper than other nations. It points out that the transformation that is called industrialisation affected all economic activity, not least agriculture. The outcome of industrialisation in Scotland was flawed in two respects: a low standard of living, and wretched housing, of much of the population, and what proved after 1919 to be a vulnerable dependence on a limited range of export industries.
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