This chapter explores seventeeth-century England and provides evidence to suggest that a lineage culture thrived, that local political relationships were largely shaped by kinship, and that these bonds and obligations were carried through into the civil war. It notes that court and electoral politics continued to be organized around noble clienteles that had kinship at their core. It further notes that emphasis was placed on kinship through the encouragement of family histories and genealogies as a primarily defensive psychological reaction to unwelcome societal change. It also argues that the greater part of Scotland's localities saw nobles mobilizing their kindreds. It was the covenanting revolution, with its increasingly fractured ideological divisions alongside engagement in a massive military enterprise throughout all three British kingdoms that ripped apart any vestiges of the Lowland kindred as the basis of a private army.
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